Ashraf Ghani is the former finance minister of Afghanistan and Chancellor of Kabul University. An Afghan citizen, he became chief adviser to President Karzai during the Interim Administration and then Finance Minister for the duration of the Transitional Administration. He is widely credited with the design of Afghanistan’s integrated political, economic and security strategy between 2001 and 2005. Ghani is founder chairman of the Washington-based Institute for State Effectiveness www.effectivestates.org which advises countries, international organisations and corporations on the role of the state and the market in a globalised world. The ISE’s Ghani-Lockhart Framework focuses on the relationship between citizens, the state and the market, and provides an integrated system for state and market-building, particularly applicable to failed and recovering states.